IDTechEx: EV market doubles down on permanent magnets despite material costs

IDTechEx: EV market doubles down on permanent magnets despite material costs

With the continued world turmoil professional above the previous several decades, the price ranges of just about every little thing are climbing. This has been specifically real for the rare earth components applied in the production of electrical motors for electric powered autos (EVs). The price of neodymium has remained pretty continuous from 2013-2020, but 2022 noticed a very sharp rise to its peak in February at 3.8 moments larger than the prior regular.

Though the value has settled to some degree, in October 2022, it was nonetheless 2.4 periods greater than it was in between 2013-2020. Whilst some automakers have substitute motor technologies that really don’t count on rare earths, the marketplace has not shifted in this route noticeably.


At peak 2022, neodymium price tag was 3.8x the regular worth in between 2013-2020. Supply: IDTechEx – “Electrical Motors for Electric powered Vehicles 2022-2032

IDTechEx has investigated the electrical motor market for electric powered motor vehicles, together with investigation, benchmarking, and demand from customers forecasts of diverse motor technologies resulting in its report: “Electrical Motors for Electric powered Autos 2022-2032”.

To date, the 3 key classes employed in the electric vehicle market place are permanent magnet motors, induction motors, and wound rotor motors. From a resources position of perspective, each of these typically works by using a stationary stator with copper windings the big difference is in the rotor building.

Permanent magnet motors use magnets on the rotor that are usually built applying uncommon earths, with neodymium using the premier fraction (though there has been some progress in ferrite-dependent magnets). Induction motors use a copper cage or windings on the rotor and use an asynchronous working basic principle. Lastly, wound rotor motors also have copper windings on the rotor, but these are enthusiastic immediately with an electric powered existing.

Despite the fact that there are other motor technologies, these as switched reluctance motors, and developments have been happening to make these additional suited to passenger auto purposes, the sector to day has been dominated by the a few options previously mentioned.

Lasting magnet motors are by far the most commonly used electrical motor in the EV market place many thanks to their significant electric power density, torque density, and efficiency. In 2021, long term magnet motors created up 84{64d42ef84185fe650eef13e078a399812999bbd8b8ee84343ab535e62a252847} of the electric powered car or truck market place.

In spite of their use in previously Tesla vehicles, induction motors have been mainly relegated to the secondary generate motor thanks to negligible drag losses when not in use.

Wound rotor motors are the usual decision when a everlasting magnet-no cost primary drive motor is required. Wound rotor selections have been made use of by Renault and lately adopted by BMW for its 5th-generation generate.

With the rising fees of materials, in particular high-priced unusual earths, fascination has been seen in the direction of eradicating their use in electric motors BMW and Renault have built use of wound rotor motors, and Mercedes went with induction motors for its EQC product. Established motor suppliers this kind of as MAHLE and scaled-down providers this kind of as Innovative Electric powered Machines are also concentrating on magnet-free alternatives.

Regardless of the desire in solutions, the long lasting magnet motor industry share for the very first 50 percent of 2022 really rose to 86{64d42ef84185fe650eef13e078a399812999bbd8b8ee84343ab535e62a252847} about 84{64d42ef84185fe650eef13e078a399812999bbd8b8ee84343ab535e62a252847} in 2021.


The share of permanent magnet motors has grown a little bit in 2022. Resource: IDTechEx

There are a handful of factors that long-lasting magnet motors have remained the dominant choice of technology in 2022 so considerably, according to IDTechEx. The to start with is the dominance of China’s domestic electric car industry. China’s electric automobile sector is the largest in the entire world, China is also responsible for the large the greater part of scarce earth provide, and that’s why the cost of neodymium is not as significantly of a issue as it is in other locations.

The other prospective rationale is automotive improvement timescales the auto platforms marketed in 2022 will have been formulated in excess of various decades, with present contracts for motor provide. There will be a lag in between the place the interest in the sector for magnet-totally free motors rises and the actual deployment on the highway.

Option motor technologies will also take knowledge and improvement OEMs are snug with permanent magnet motors, and a change in technological innovation desires to confirm it is reputable, has equal or superior efficiency, and does not call for major shifts in command electronics (until this can be involved with the motor).

IDTechEx Outlook. Inspite of the growing prices of exceptional earths and a host of other elements, IDTechEx predicts that most of the EV sector will stay with everlasting magnet motors in the brief- to mid-expression, particularly in China, which accounts for the premier part of the EV market.

Europe is the key location wherever we could count on to see greater adoption of magnet-absolutely free technologies, as currently demonstrated by Renault, BMW, and Mercedes in a number of a long time, with future-technology vehicle platforms, we hope to see a few extra announcements about magnet-cost-free choices.